CFD–DEM simulation of turbulence modulation in horizontal pneumatic conveying


M Crapper, M. Ebrahimi







A study is presented to evaluate the capabilities of the standard k–ε turbulence model and the k–ε turbulence model with added source terms in predicting the experimentally measured turbulence modulation due to the presence of particles in horizontal pneumatic conveying, in the context of a CFD–DEM Eulerian–Lagrangian simulation. Experiments were performed using a 6.5-m long, 0.075-m diameter horizontal pipe in conjunction with a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system. Spherical glass beads with two sizes, 1.5 and 2 mm, were used. Simulations were performed using the commercial discrete element method software EDEM, coupled with the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. Hybrid source terms were added to the conventional k–ε turbulence model to take into account the influence of the dispersed phase on the carrier phase turbulence intensity.The simulation results showed that the turbulence modulation depends strongly on the model parameter Cε3. Both the standard k–ε turbulence model and the k–ε turbulence model with the hybrid source terms could predict the gas phase turbulence intensity trend only generally. A noticeable discrepancy in all cases between simulation and experimental results was observed, particularly for the regions close to the pipe wall. It was also observed that in some cases the addition of the source terms to the k–ε turbulence model did not improve the simulation results when compared with those of the standard k–ε turbulence model. Nonetheless, in the lower part of the pipe where particle loading was greater due to gravitational effects, the model with added source terms performed somewhat better.


Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, laser-Doppler anemometry, Pneumatic conveying, turbulence modulation

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